The Robotics Team of Amir Kabir University of Technology


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Little Kambiz


The objective of the competition was to develop a robot that could follow a black line in a white background. This black path had some discontinuity and abrupt turns.

Little Kambiz won the first prize of “Line Tracking” part, Intelligent Mice Robotic Contest, IEEE Student Branch, University of Tabriz , 2001.


Robot Technical Feature:


What makes Little Kambiz truly exceptional is its high speed, efficient and absolutely reliable controlling algorithm, its small size and motor braking circuit.

Little Kambiz has four Infrared reflective sensors attached to the front of the robot. Each sensor along with its related circuitry provides a digital signal to microcontroller according to the surface it is positioned above, that is, the output is high when it is positioned over white, low output when it senses black line.


The robot has two driven wheels in the back and the steering is based on differential motion, enables it to change the direction very quickly. Besides, the motor braking system causes each wheel to stop more quickly at the time when it is deviated from the line.

Following its reliable and revised algorithm that was implemented in a 802051 microcontroller, Little Kambiz almost never deviated from the line. Here is a brief overview of the algorithm:


We put the robot on the ground so that the line places between sensor R and L then controller commands the wheels to go forward. As soon as one of the sensors (R or L) senses black, the related wheel stop while other is moving forward, so the robot turn back to line. In the case of discontinuity, sensors RR and LL play their roles to recognize the discontinuity and compel the robot to return back according to relatively more complex algorithm.

 Summarized Characteristics:
  • Absolutely reliable controlling algorithm

  • High speed

  • Wheel braking circuitry

  • Small dimensions (135mm*130mm)

  • 3Khz modulation for Infrared sensors , diminishing the effect of power line 50Hz noise

  • Software debouncing method , preventing transient responses of sensor status affects algorithm defectively



Download little.mwv (365 KB)



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